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Medical Targets and The Therapeutic Development in Parkinson’s Disease (CHAPTER 1)

Introduction

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a brain disorder. As a result of this disease, person can feel difficulty in movement and other muscles problems (Parkinson’s disease: A guide for patients and families, American Academy of Neurology, 2009). The cause of occurrence of the disease is considered as a result of combination of genetic and environmental factors. Clinically disorder occurs due to gradual loss of cells in the substantia nigra which produces dopamine. However, exact cause of loss of cells is yet unknown but causes researched are genetic predisposition, environmental toxins, and accelerated aging. Passing down the inheritance of a gene from a former generation, intake of illegal drug tainted with a chemical called, MPTP. Due to intake of such drugs individuals can develop severe Parkinson-like symptoms. Aging is another factor involved in causing disease, because with the growing age individual loses dopamine producing neurons, which leads to the premature loss of dopamine. In addition, free radicals or unstable molecules develop during normal chemical reactions in the body; as a result of interaction of molecule with other molecules, they become able to damage a different tissue, including neurons (Factor& Weiner, 2008). Order  writing paper

 

The clinical research indicated it as degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and the neuropathologic characteristics of the disease is the presence of Lewy bodies composed mostly of alpha-synuc1ein and ubiquitin (Bene et al, 2009). Different clinical studies about Parkinson’s disease have found some most common symptoms of disease such as tremor, postural instability and rigidity (Ceravolo et al, 2009). Other symptoms are linked with motor skills such as autonomic dysfunction, cognitive (Jankovic, 2008) and neurobehavioral problems including sensory and sleep difficulties (Suchowersky et al, 2006). There is no treatment explored so far that can stop or reverse the breakdown of cell causing Parkinson’s disease. However, drugs have been using for years for relieve from many symptoms (Schapira, 2005). Surgical treatment was once the major treatment for Parkinson’s disease and in 1967 after the introduction of the drug levodopa, surgical treatment was largely abandoned because the drug is more effective treatment than surgery.

Since there is speech difficulty with Parkinson’s disease individuals such as weal voice and quiet, or speaking rate is fast and difficulty in starting a speech. These symptoms in the individual with PD are the most common motor speech disorder (Duffy, 2005).

Initially Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT™) was started to treat voice and speech difficulties (Ramig et al, 1994). With the emergence of LSVTTM findings and different studies aim to treat the key targets and outcomes of this treatment (Sapir et al, 2007).

Moreover, Psychotic symptoms are a frequent occurrence in PD (Fernandez, 2008) and they are treated with screening and drug dose. With the increasing therapeutic development in recent years the treatment options for PD have greatly expanded. There are pharmacological treatments options such as levodopa, dopamine receptor agonists, anti-cholinergic medications, monoamine oxidase B inhibitors, and the catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors that are the foundation of therapeutic intervention.

Research Aim

This paper aims to review the new advances and developments achieved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The literature review of the paper will be used to find the result, analyze the advance treatment available for PD including interpretation and conclusion. 

Research Objectives

The objectives of this paper are as follows:

  1. To find the treatments approaches for PD
  2. To find the current trends in the treatment of PD
  3. To identify the medical targets of the treatment (e.g. target molecules, receptors)
  4. To find the improvements in current treatments

Research Methodology

The research paper will be analyzed using findings of literature review. For writing literature review, different academic and research articles will be used through approaching database such as EBSCOHOST and JSTOR.

Rationale of Research

Thirty years ago in the United States about 50,000 people were identified with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Only therapeutic compound available that time was levodopa which is a chemical compound causing the ability in body to turn into dopamine.  However, Levodopa was very helpful for overcoming major symptoms of PD including postural instability and tremor, there were some long term complications involved with the treatment including dyskinesias and fluctuations in motor function. Moreover, brain surgery that permanently damages the tissues of the region was the only non-drugs treatment available. However, Parkinson’s disease is incurable, different development are made to achieve to provide improved and quality life including physical and psychological morbidity. The reason to choose this topic is that aging is a natural process and loss of cell with the growing age makes individual to suffer from symptoms like postural instability, tremor and rigidness, however, there are medication and surgery treatment to alleviate the progression of the condition but there are always advantages and disadvantages involved with the use. With the inception of new technology, researchers are now trying to find more effective treatment with more advantages and lesser disadvantages. These developments are important because current progress in the development of treatment will determine the future development of treatment.

Conclusion of Introduction

This chapter presents research question, research objectives and research methodology used for conducting the paper including rationale of research. The research topic is to find the treatment options available for Parkinson’s disease and also reviews the new development in this respect. General objective of paper is to find what Parkinson’ disease is and what its common features are. The methodology chosen to use for this paper is qualitative method in which secondary data will be used for analyzing and findings of the analysis will be used in discussion and interpretation of results. The rationale of study justifies the reason of doing the research.  

 

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