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Medical Targets and The Therapeutic Development in Parkinson’s Disease (CHAPTER 3)



This chapter discusses the research design for this research paper including techniques and procedures used. The research design of the paper is Exploratory Research which is designed to develop basic knowledge of the topic, discussing relevant issues associated with the problem, and reveal the information needs. In addition, this chapter discusses strengths and weaknesses of the research design and methodology.

The purpose of this Exploratory Research is to find the treatment approaches for Parkinson’s disease including new development in the treatment approaches. This chapter discusses the following: (a) research purpose, (b) research approach, (c), research design, (d) data collection and weakness and strengths of research design. Specifically, this research methodology chapter describes the methods that will be used to collect data on the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Order  write my paper for me

The chapter also includes the research methodology and procedures that are used to gather data from the literature. Included in the chapter are the weaknesses and strengths of the methodology used.

The Research Purpose

There are various research activities that differentiate types of research conducted (Zikmund, 2000). The purpose of research study can be differentiated and classified into three categories, and these are, exploratory, descriptive, and explanatory (Yin, 1994).

Exploratory Research: Zikmund (2000) states that,“it is a research that conducted during the initial stage of research and helps the researcher to clarify and understand the research problem.” Sekaran (2000) stated that,“an exploratory research is carrying out when no information is available or accessible and not known much about the situations.” Exploratory research is good in knowing“what is happening; to seek new insights; to ask questions and to asses phenomena in a new light, (Robson, 1993).”

Descriptive Research: Robson (1993) describe the descriptive research as a research that“portrays an accurate profile of person, events, or situations.” Vanderstoep and Johnston (2009) state that descriptive research,“describes the attitudes and behaviors observed during the investigation.” Sekaran (2000) states that,“descriptive research is carrying out when information is clearly available, accessible and known much about the situational factors.” states further that“it helps to understand the characteristics of individuals, organizations and allow thinking systematically about aspects.”

Explanatory Research: According to Zikmund (2000), explanatory research“is conducted to identify causal relationships among variables” in addition that,“relationships between variable to be explained.” Yin (1994) states that“an explanatory research approach could also be use when the study aims to explain certain procedures from different perspectives or situations with given set of events.” This research involve finding out: (a) treatments available for Parkinson’s disease (b) new development in the treatment approaches.

The Research Approach

The research approach refers to the method adopt in conducting a research. There are four types of research approaches; these are quantitative, qualitative, pragmatic (mixed methods) and advocacy or participatory (emancipatory) research. The research method that used for any study depends largely on the research purpose and the accompanied research questions. The research approaches available will be review to see which of the research approach suitable to this research.

Quantitative Approach:

The quantitative research associated with positivist or post-positivist paradigm and involves the collecting and converting data into numerical from that resulted in statistical information produced and conclusions drawn. The advantage of quantitative research approach as mentioned by Vanderstoep and Johnston (2009) states that,“the advantage of quantitative research is that the findings from the sample under study will more accurately reflect the overall population from which the sample was drawn.” However, the extent of the generalization will depend on the sample population involves in the study, how the sample selected and if the sample is representative of the general population being study.

Qualitative Approach:

The qualitative research associated with social constructivist paradigm, which single out the socially constructed nature of reality. Qualitative research approach involves recording, analyzing, and attempting to discover in-depth purpose and importance of nature, contradictory beliefs, emotions, as well as behaviors. The qualitative helps researcher to gain in-depth and complex understanding of the study but that cannot be generalized to the population under study. The main advantage of qualitative  as defined by Vanderstoep and Johnston (2009) states that,“the main advantage of qualitative research is that it provides a richer and more in - depth understanding of the population under study and that“techniques such as interviews and focus groups allow the research participants to give very detailed and specific answers.” In qualitative research, researchers do not based their study on pre-determined hypothesis. However, researcher point out problem studying or exploring which may be guided by the theoretical ground.

Source: Vanderstoep, S.W.& Johnston, D.D., 2009. Research methods for everyday life: blending qualitative and quantitative approaches. San Francisco: John Wiley& Sons, Inc.  

Pragmatic or Mixed Methods Approach:

Pragmatic or mixed methods research approach involve process whereby both quantitative and qualitative research methods, techniques and procedures used by the researcher recognising the limitations posed by each methods and that each approach will be able to complement each other. This method is essential feature of triangulation that indicates using more than two methods with in order to check results against each method and also known as cross-examination. The advantage of pragmatic or mixed method include to be more confident with the result when different approach lead to same result  thus complementary each other.

Advocacy or Participatory (Emancipatory) Approach:

This approach used by the researcher when the researcher feels the need to respond to the need of vulnerable or marginalised people and when other approaches do not. This type of approaches shows that the researcher do have political agenda and aim to bring positive change to the people involved in the study. The advantage of this type of research is helping the vulnerable people that not in position of power of saying in the society. The main disadvantage is difficult sometimes for the researcher to adopt neutral stance that mostly required in a research study.

Data Collection Method

The data collection method is described as a process that involves preparing and collection of data for research or study through documents, observations, interview, and questionnaires. In order to rely on the data collected, it is significant to collect data needed for a study or research from a number of sources of evidence and this refer to as triangulation. Yin (1994) states that,“a major strength of study data collection is the opportunity to use many different sources of evidence.”

There are two types of data collection method, primary and secondary. The primary data is the data that collected particularly for the research and includes, interview observations or questionnaire survey. The secondary data can be collected through various documents, books articles, journals and periodicals etc.

Since primary data is collected to analyze the research question; in this study secondary data will be used as primary data such as books and scholarly research and journal articles. The secondary data will be analyzed in the result, interpretation and analysis chapter of the paper. Data for treatment of Parkinson’s disease is gathered using particularly last five years sources which include research, experiment and observation from 2006 till now.

Strength and Weakness of Research Design

Following Research design of the paper, secondary data collected for literature review will be analyzed. The literature review of the paper involves the findings of treatment approaches available for Parkinson’s disease. There are some strengths and weaknesses of the research design described as follows:

The first major strength of research design is that it is already collected and frequently cleaned (Blaxter et al, 2006).  This kind of research paper is easy to conduct because data gathering is already done and can be utilized through internet. Mostly it is time saving because experiments and other observation needs plenty of time to do research and using other research studies saves the time (Garrard, 2006). In addition, cleaned and comprehensive data can be a great assistance to analyze and reach to the conclusion. Other strength of this research design is that it is useful for analyzing a limited number of information related to question. By using literature review as primary data, research will be focused on the findings of the research question and research analysis of the paper which will provide high level overview of the current and previous knowledge. Analyzing literature review for finding the result of the research could be useful for describing complex phenomena. It provides individual case information and conduct cross-case comparisons and analysis. Research design which analyzes literature review in rich detail can also study phenomena and provide an opportunity to study dynamic processes such as (i.e., documenting sequential patterns and alterations). Such data is collected in naturalistic settings therefore it can be used after some modifications.

The weakness of this research design is that mostly data used is collected from other research studies and does not necessarily demonstrate a general perception or general result of research question. Moreover, using secondary data as primary data could result in inconsistency of perspective and it can be difficult to make a quantitative predictions. Some studies have indicated that using secondary data might cause lower credibility because findings of the result not necessarily match the requirements of the research question.    

Conclusion of Chapter Methodology

This chapter discussed research design, research approach, and research purpose. The research design is chosen using qualitative research approach in which secondary data will be analyzed as primary data. Result of the data will be analyzed in result chapter while further discussed and interpreted in discussion, analysis and interpretation of result chapter.


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