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Medical Targets and The Therapeutic Development in Parkinson’s Disease (CHAPTER 5)

Discussion, Analysis and Interpretation of the Result

This chapter of the paper contains discussion, analysis and interpretation of the result provided in the previous chapter. The discussion will be done using previous and new knowledge about the question. The analysis part of the chapter will assess the data using critical approach including treatments available for Parkinson’s disease, improvements, the level through which treatment options are used and preferred and advantages and disadvantages of these treatment in terms of effectiveness. Interpretation of the result will include future development expected seeing recent research and development for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Hire the best assignment writier UK

Result Discussion

By studying previous researches, it is found that Parkinson’s disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder among old age people and affects regardless of gender discrimination (Ronken& Scharrenburg, 2002). It mainly affects the quality life of the individual by causing movement disability such as tremor, rigidity, Bradykinesia, and asymmetric (Jankovic& Tolosa, 2007). Due to significant disability caused by the disease, there are therapeutic treatments available that actually used to overcome the symptoms of PD. Studies have found that there is no absolute cure found so far and therefore new researches and development are being made to provide an improved quality life to patients.   Historically drugs have been using to treat as major treatment for PD but as a result of continuous drugs intake symptoms-like disease increases (Chaudhuri et al, 2009). The treatments are usually prescribed according to severity of the disease (Clough et al, 2007). It is mainly found in data that there are treatments for PD available are protective, symptomatic, and treatment for non-motor problems (Simuni& Pahwa, 2009).

Treatments for Parkinson’s disease

However, there are two different clinical treatment found in various studies: pharmacology treatment and non-pharmacology treatment (Schapira (2007). The pharmacology treatment mainly includes drugs and other medications to treat the symptoms of PD (Mosley et al, 2009). However, these drugs are useful to treat only symptoms but not effective in terms of stopping the disease (Schapira, 2009).  Get online  dissertation help UK

Non-pharmacology treatment available is considered as surgical treatment of the disease and used as alternate option of drugs (Waters, 2008). According to data gathered, surgical treatment has been long using as an effective treatment of PD and used when drug treatment is no more effective on disease (Bene et al, 2009). 

Pharmacology Treatment

As far as the use of drugs and its effects are concerned, drug has been used for removing symptoms and numbers of drugs have been found to deal with different level of severity of disease. Drugs found in the studies are for multiple purposes such as protective purpose, Symptomatic purpose, and treating for non-motor problems. Different pharmacology treatments aim to use drugs and medication on different type of symptoms. These treatments are discussed separately for the clarification of the discussion.

Protective Treatment

The drugs used for protective treatment aims to identify the disease before it has progressed enough to show extreme symptoms of PD (Bene et al, 2009). Studies have suggested that at this stage which is also called early stage of disease when symptoms of disease are not severe and can be controlled using protective treatment (Frosini& Bonuccelli, 2009). The early symptoms of treating for protective purpose, there are characteristics observed in patients including constipation, olfactory impairment, abnormalities in cardiac dopamine neuroimaging. However, these characteristics are possible characteristics and can further lead to development of the disease. Protective treatment for PD intends to identify the symptoms of disease before the early stage of a motor dysfunction and use putative disease-modifying treatment. Putative disease-modifying treatment is active in reducing the progression of symptoms (Kincses& Vecsei, 2010). Best cheap  essay writing service for affordable price

Symptomatic Treatment

Symptomatic treatment includes such drugs that aim to reduce the symptoms of disease and affects the motor and non-motor symptoms with the neuroprotective. With benefits and side effects, this treatment is largely prescribed to patients. Symptomatic treatment works in two different ways: dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic treatment. 

Dopaminergic Treatment:There are different compounds used in dopaminergic treatment including MAO-B inhibitors, Amantadine, Anti-Cholinergic Drugs, Dopamine Agonists and Levodopa. These compounds have efficiency to work differently to reduce the symptoms of the disease. As MAO-B inhibitors is used to delay the motor dysfunction if used in early stage of disease. As discussed before that Parkinson’s disease is caused by loss of cell, Amantadine to releases dopamine from central neurons and delays the absorption of dopamine by neural cells. Anti-Cholinergic Drugs affects and reduces tremor as an early symptoms of disease. Another compound Dopamine Agonists is very effective as first treatment to overcome early symptoms of PD. Levodopa is the most used compound for treating symptoms of PD (Horstink& Tolosa& Bonuccelli U, et al, 2006).

Non-Dopaminergic Treatment:Non-dopaminergic treatment works on neurotransmitters and neuromodulators as they are identified as major player in the motor and non-motor symptoms. Functionally non-dopamine treatment use therapeutic approach based on the use of selective A2A receptor antagonists and also includes NMDA antagonists as treatment option (Kincses& Vecsei, 2010)

Non-motor Problems

Studies reveal that sometimes PD does not show up with motor problems but rather non-motor problems including sleep and sensory problems that leads to fully develop disease if remains untreated (Jankovic, 2008). For treating non-motor problems or symptoms of PD dopaminergic drugs is used to increase or reduce dopamine responsiveness of the symptom. buy thesis online

Beside, pharmacology treatment there is non-pharmacology treatment found in the result of research.

Non-Pharmacology Treatment

Non-pharmacology treatment is found in the result referring to surgical treatment of PD. Studies demonstrated that the surgical treatment has long been using for treating the disease and there is new surgical treatment available namely Deep Brain Stimulation (Bhatnagar, 2008). The surgical option has always been used as alternative treatment of drugs which means that disease is turned out to be complex and cannot be cured by drugs (Takahashi et al, 2007). Studies suggested that surgical treatment for PD is more effective than drugs as it gives relief from symptoms (Torresa et al, 2010).

There are benefits and side effects of each compound and will be discussed in the section of analysis and interpretation. The section analysis and interpretation will further discuss the effects of compounds on disease

Analysis and Interpretation of the Result

The result found in the study indicates an effective but clinically limited treatment options for PD. However, there is no treatment so far discovered that could stop the disease but drugs and surgery has been using for long to treat the symptoms of the PD. Different drugs, however, effective to somewhat reduce the symptoms for example dopaminergic treatment largely use Levodopa that is proved to be very effective on early symptoms specifically (Schapira, 2005). If it is analyzed which of the approach is more effective and comprehensive, studies seem to support both treatment approaches in terms of effectiveness and safety. Levodopa, on the contrary, is proved to be not only effective but also causing certain problems that worsen the disease. Moreover, surgery is ultimately is supported to be used as alternative of drugs or complications caused by Levodopa (Chaudhuri& Ondo, 2010). Few studies indicated that drugs are sometimes ineffective and rather cause problems therefore for them surgery is an effective clinical process to deal with the PD (Sapir et al, 2007). The surgical process, however, uses implantation of electrodes into the brain to directly use high-frequency electrical stimulation until the occurrence of the symptom of disease is reduced therefore it is more effective than pharmacology treatment (Grosset et al, 2010). Moreover, effects of drugs are found as temporary and surgery also involves some risks including bleeding in the brain causing a stroke (Fernandez, 2008).  write my coursework

The analysis of effects of drugs and surgery indicates that the effects of treatment of PD can have different effects on different patients of PD including side effects and benefits an early identification of disease may help remarkably in controlling the symptoms of disease (Frosini& Bonuccelli, 2009).


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